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NOTES

ON

CURIOUS AND UNCOMMON BOOKS.

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CATENA

LIBRORUM TACENDORUM:

BEING

ON BY

PISANUS FRAXI.

Une bibliographic complete est un flambeau, car avec de tels ^^ments d'^tudes, de confrontations, de recherches, I'erreur devient impossible.

Leon de Labessadk.

LONDON: MDCCCLXXXV.

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EADER.

Dear brother of the g-entle craft,

Collector, student, " bouquiniste," Or book-worm, virtuoso daft

As oft unlettered dolts insist, For thee I've writ this bulky tome

(And others twain). On topmost shelf For it I beg a secret home,

Secure from idle, meddling* elf, Who, wanting purpose, vainly pries,

Or maiden green, or artless youth, Or him who would, Procrustes-wise,

A limit set to search of truth, And make all letters his own size. No book exists, however bad, From which some good may not be had By him who understands to read. May this, oh brother, be my meed : That in thy calm, impartial sight I may be judged to read aright.

P. F.

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^PIGF^PHS.

^ERE I am, as usual, nestled among all the good things that intellect has produced— my walls are "instinct with thought" inhale here the essence of departed wisdom ^the breathings of its spirit.

William Beckforo. ffltmoiti ot )3ec&{ortI, u. 340.

Le plus grand personnage qui, depuis trois mille ans peut-^tre, fasse parler de lui dans le monde, tour k tour geant ou pygmee, orgueilleux ou modeste, entreprenant ou timide, sachant prendre toutes les formes et tous les r61es, capable tour ii tour d eclairer ou pervertir les esprits, d'emouvoir les passions ou de les apaiser, artisan de factions ou conciliateur des partis, veritable Protee qu'aucune definition ne peut saisir, c'est U Lwre,

E. Egger. %\iXz\xt ttbre^ p. vn.

les bas-fonds de la litterature ont toujours ete dedafgnes par la haute

critique, celle qui s'ecrit trop souvent avec des grands mots et des opinions toutes faites ; on n'y a done guere regarde jusqu'k ce jour ; k peine quelques 6rudits ont porte leur curiositd sur des personnages isoles; aucune 6tude d'ensemble.

GusTAVE MouRAviT. Uc ^Monittur Uu Saiiopfji'le, n. 197.

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VI.

EPIGRAPHS.

Les livres inddcens ne sont point ceux qui nuisent le plus aux moeurs : ce qui les enerve et les perd, c'est la leg^ferete avec laquelle on rapporte et Ton presente cornme indifferentes, comme ing-enieuses mSme, les infractions les plus positives aux devoirs les plus saints ; comme des maniferes elev^es et inddpendantes, les proced^s licencieux et perfides ; comme des amusemens sans consequence, ce qui est contraire aux principes que soi-meme Ton avoue. On ne saurait nuire davantag-e qu'en insinuant qu'il y a deux morales, celle de la sagfesse et celle du plaisir, ou les preceptes publics et les maximes secrfetes. Je soutiens que certaines pages de Voltaire et plusieurs scenes de Regnard et de Molifere, sont bien plus contraires k la morale que les obsc6nit& de TAretin et les hideux exchs decrits dans Justine. Les 6pi- grammes orduriferes ont fait peu de mal : les Contes de Bocace et de La Fontaine en ont fait beaucoup.

E.-P. DB Sknancour. Se ramour, p. 228.

-for instead of bslieviij that pictures of vice must disgust, certain persons seem to think that they must allure ; nay, from the false idea that innocence and ignorance are the same, they try to shut away from the youn^ any knowledge of evil, and having " purified " Shakespeare, purify also the Bible, for family reading.

This is a mistake. The Holy Spirit himself has told us, in a truth as mighty as a whirlwind, as unshaken and firm as a chain of mountains, that " the kingdom of God is within us." There is another truth, its parallel, equally valuable, which He has left for man to find out, it is this : the kingdom of the devil is also within us. We cannot be good by pretending not to know evil. When women go mad, the most innocent, the youngest, the most purely educated often utter the most horrid and obscene language ; a proof that to them such evil has been known ; how acquired, how taught, it is in vain to ask. What the teacher ought to seek is, not to blot out and veil iniquity, since that will always be visible, but to make the heart strong enough to cast out the e/il, first into the herd of swine, then into the sea, which shall swallow it for ever.

[J. Hain Friswell]. lEtfifapi^ on £nslti;|^ BKrtter^, p. 273.

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VII.

A lire entre les lignes, je pourrais me demander avec tristesse si je ne suis pas un malheureux inconscient qui a laisse son bon sens moral s'egarer sur les rayons malsains des bibliothbques clandestines. Un examen de conscience approfondi me rassure k I'instant. En litterature Timmoral commence oh finissent la sante et la droiture de Tesprit ; Ik ou (sic) TintelUgence est trfes cultivee, jaillissante de s^ve et nourrie dans Thumus des genies vraiment humains, des sublimes pontes et prosateurs grecs et romains et surtout de Tessence gauloise de notre admirable lang^ue du xvi® sifecle ; Ik ou {sic) le lettre apparatt, la fausse pudeur n'est plus de mise et Timmoral ne saurait exister. Les lecteurs de cette revue sont recrut^s parmi les erudits eclaircs et blasts sur le propos ; je ne pense pas qu'il soit necessaire de les traiter en petites demoiselles. Lorsqu'on a guerroye dans la vie des livres en compagnie d'Aristophane, de Lucien, de P^trone, de Suetone, de Rabelais, de Beroald de Verville, de Boccace ou de Bonaventure Desperriers, on serait mal venu de donner k ses Ifevres Taccentuation de prch fudor! k propos de Restif ou de Baffo. Pour les lecteurs bibliophiles, les ouvrages que je signale, tires k un nombre restreint au possible, ne sont dans le domaine litteraire que des curi- osites analogues aux singuliers cas pathologiques du mus^e Dupuytren. lis ont pour eux le meme int^ret dans Texcentrique. Personne n*est absolument forc6 de pcnctrer dans ces collections d'anatomie erotique ; mais ceux qui aiment la nature jusque dans ses verrues y font visite simplement, sans prendre pour cela une mine gaillarde de bourgeois en bonne fortune.— Je n'insisterai pas d'ailleurs sur ce sujet, car je me suis toujours demande avec Montaigne, le sage des sages et le logicien par excellence, ce que Taction g^nitale, dans ses diverses manifestations, cette action si naturelle, si ndcessaire et si juste avait bien pu faire aux hommes, pour qu'on Texclue de propos delibere, avec une horreur bien risible, de tous propos regies et serieux.

La pudibonderie, si amusante et si gracieuse chez la femme, n'est jamais que ridicule chez un mile ; elle prend m^me un autre nom quand elle atteint les drudits. J'en appelle aux casuistes.

OcTAVB UzANNE, It ttbtf, Mars, 1884, p. 138.

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EPIGRAPHS.

C'est le mattre du monde, le vice ! et il triomphe au moins six fols sur dix ^je veux hire gen6reux, je vous fais la part belle. Ce qu'il y a de plus prostitu^ sur cette terre, c'est rhumanite tout entibre I croyez-le.

Alberic Glady. Soutr, p. 55-

■^^■■■1 ^ r^'\^\ ^ I

Ne faisons pas fi du crime r il est, comme certaines femmes au masque laid, repoussant pour le vulg-aire ; mais souvent aussi comme elles il a des beautes secretes qui recfelent des plaisirs ineffables.

La v6rite n'est pas toujours en satin blanc comme une fille k la noce ; et, sur Dieu et Thonneur! je n*ai dit que la verite, que je dois. Quand la vfritd est de boue et de sang, quimd elle offense Todorat, je la dis de boue et de sang", je la laisse puer ; tant pis ! Ce n'est pas moi qui Tarroserai d'eau de Colog'ne. Je ne suis pas ici, d*ailleurs, pour conter des sornettes au jasmin ou au serpolet.

Petrus Borel. :flKaVame 9uttp{)ar, i. 263, u. 230.

La pudeur est une convention sociale, un pr^jugd sans consistance, une Mr6sie k la religion de Nature. Virg-inie eut tort d'en mourir, Bemardin de Saint-Pierre a tort devant Zola.

La pudeur est un mot ; la Voluptd est une force.

La Volupte est sainte et feconde : la chanter, c'est peupler.

C*est ^chauffer la femme au sein glac6 ; c'est reveiller la jeunesse dormant dans les testicules du vieillard et du pr^tre. CEuvre d'humanit^ et de patriotisme !— C'est donner des bras ^ I'ag^riculture ; des soldats ^ la defense du sol ; des t6tes k la pens6e et au travail du Progj^s.

Edmond Harancourt. Ea E^jjenlye M Bfl^tH, p. 14.

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IX.

II y a k present une inquisition s^vbre sur les livi\ s ; mais un ministre, en defendant un livre, Taccrt^dite. Le vrai secret serait de le faire refuter par un auteur sage et homme de bien.

Un livre d6fendu est un feu sur lequel on veut marcher et qui jette au nez des ^tincelles.

Voltaire. He dottiiter.

-^r^>4ai<iiBjEg>0«^ <r-

On ne doit point esp6rer, d*aprbs cet ^nonc^, qu'une telle lecture n'offre rien de libre en morale, d'heterodoxe en religion, de hardi en politique, rien qui blesse les oreilles des jeunes fille§ ou m^me de leurs m^res, ni qui choque les croyances publiques et privces ; un tel espoir serait trompe trop souvent, at la chose etait inevitable, ; mais que cette libert6 soit un mal ici, je ne le pense pas, au contraire ; pourvu qu'une certaine mesure ait et6 gard^e dans les exemples, et que le juste et I'honn^te aient ete respectes ou veng^s dans la critique : or, c'est ce que j'ai eu constamment en vue ; et c'est assez pour les personnes ^clairdes et sincferes, les seules qu'il faille prendre pour juges, les seules h, qui ce livre soit adresse.

Le Marquis du Roure. 9nalectabtblton, i. 13.

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RELIMINAI^y t\EMARKS.

^HAT the interest taken in bibliography, " the quaint duenna of literature, a study apparently dry, but not without its humours," (^) has not diminished of late maybe accepted, I think, as a pleasing fact. Moreover, books are more sought for and collected than ever, and are more cared about for their own sake, not as mere chattels or adjuncts to wall decoration, but as " a company of honest old fellows in their leathern jackets in thy study which will find thee excellent diver- tisement at home.*' (*) Were proof of this assertion needed, I would point to the continued advance in the prices paid for fine or rare books; to the increase of works and periodicals purely bibliographical, or embracing bibliography as a leading fea- ture; (^) to the compiling of catalogues of private libraries, such as that of the late Mr. Huth ; and above all, to the printing of the catalogue of the British Museum. With all this.

1 Andrew Lang, C|)e Etbrarv, p. 4.

* Thomas Fuller, C^e ftolp antr f^rofane dtate, 0/ Books,

Several will be found enumerated among- the Auihoriites, post.

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PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

the day is yet far distant when we may hope to have a complete catalogue of printed books. That " consummation devoutly to be wished " need however not be despaired of if every possessor of a library, every student of a certain subject, epoch, or class of literature, would carefully note the volumes he owns, or which pass through his hands. This once done, a staff of intelligent and exact scribes and a careful printer would alone be needed to produce an Universal Bibliography. (*)

* As I have always insisted that no bibliographer should write about books which he has not seen, the above suggestion may appear inconsistent and to require a word of explanation. It is not within human possibility for one man to see all the books that have been printed, nor even for any one association of men, in as much as the books could not be brought together in one place. The primary work then, the noting books de vtsu, must be done piecemeal. Let us for a mom^^nt suppose this labour to have been accomplished by trustworthy bibliographers, such as Viollet le Due, poetry ; James Atkinson, medicine ; De Morgan, arithmetic ; IL Stevens, geography ; Du Roure, literary curiosities ; G. Peignot, books destroyed ; John Martin, privately printed books ; Charles Asselineau, modem romance ; Paul Lacroix, the works of one man ; &c. The various separate catalogues or biblio- graphies would have to be assembled, arranged in chronological order, and numbered. The titles of books noticed would then be transcribed in the most condensed form possible, beginning with the earliest bibliography, and the number denoting that bibliography or authority attached. Where a later bibliographer simply repeats a title already given, no notice need be taken of such repetition, or second number added ; but where an early bibliographer is found to be corrected by a later writer, the former should be entirely omitted, and the latter alone recorded. In this way a reliable, universal hand-book to printed literature is possible, although the undertaking would be immense, and involve labour and an outlay almost beyond the resources of a private individual or firm.

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XIII.

Nor has bibliography attained the position of an exact science its nomenclature is not yet fixed. To adduce but a single instance : Many books have three distinct titles which sometimes vary in their wording ; two of these (when the third is not entirely ignored) (*) are spoken of by English biblio- graphers indiscriminately as the Half -title. I have endeavoured to give a separate and distinct name to each : That which precedes the full title-page, "faux titre" in French, I call Bastard-title^ that which follows the title-page and heads the first page of text I term Half-title.

Again, with regard to the sizes of books there is much con- fusion and uncertainty. It cannot be expected that any one who is not a paper maker or a publisher should understand exactly what is meant by such terms as " imperial," " super royal," "demy," " double crown," "jesus," " pot," " telliere," "couronne," " coquille," "colombier," "grand aigle," and a host of other trade words which are frequently met with in publishers' and booksellers' catalogues. (®) Rather than employ these technicalities not universally understood, I have preferred to give the sizes of the volumes noticed in inches (') of the

^ As in a recently published volume : S[uti^or£(I)tp ^ ^ubluatuin, the sole object of which is to explain and define these doubtful points.

^ Tables explanatory of some of these technicalities, and of the sizes of books generally, are not wanting". See the work mentioned in the previous nOte, also Conna(^£(ance£( xiiMiiixxti & un Sibltopl^tle ; ^ontj^I; i^otei^ of t|)f Irtbrarp Sd^tfortatton, Nos. for August and December, 1882, &c.

^ For the guidance of foreign readers unfamiliar with HnoHsh measures I may add that an English inch is equivalent to about zk centimetres.

c

XIV.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

paper when the volumes which have passed through my hands have not been cut down, and of the letter-press. (®)

The present volume, like its predecessors, is miscellaneous in its contents, and although I have dealt with one branch of literature, English fiction, more exhaustively than any other, the books embraced are of a very varied character. I claim permission to say a few words on the several groupings.

The first thirty-one pages are devoted to works in various languages upon subjects relating generally to peculiarities of the sexes, or to their connection, criminal or otherwise, with each other. Among the subjects discussed are : Sodomy, (')

^ In doing this I have taken into consideration that which api)ears on every page, but not that which occurs on some pages only. Thus, my measurements include the headings, pagination, and catch-words, when there are any, but not the signatures.

In an article on La CompircUion du 12 Mars 1814, M. Gilbkrt-Augustin Trixrrt, speaking of the " gratitude amoureuse " which Louis xvin. felt for his favourite the Comte d'Avaray, remarks: "La tendresse que Louis ressentait pour ce favori ctait phenomfene inexplicable : seul, j)eut-^tre, un m£decin physiologiste .aurait-il pu Texpliquer. On e\it dit une de ces passions ^tranges qui, aiix demiers jours des Valois, troubla I'^tre entier du ' Vilain Hirode ' (Henri m.) pour un Saint-Megrin ou pour un d*6pkrnon." tra j^oubtllr JJebtie, No. for May 15, 1880, p. 253. To the list I offered at p. 410 of Ctnturia tibrorum SbtfronUttorum of men accused of this propensity may be added : Sainte-Beuve, Count d'Orsay, Admiral de la Susse, William n. King of Holland, Charles ii. and Charles hi., dukes of Parma. La Roche-Pouchin Rochefort St-Louis, the spiritualist Hume, Ernest Barochr (Baroche, Fronsac). See E'liitermiHtare, xv, 447; JM^moirtf du Comte Horace de Viel Castel, ii. 44, I9S> in. 18, 172, iv. 258. The following

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

XV.

Frigidity, Polygamy, Incest, Fornication, Hermaphrodites, (*^)

remarks of Dr. J. Agrippa concerning- the origin of this vice are worthy of attention : " J'ai dit quels developpements effrayants prenait le malk T^poque de la pubert6. L'enfant qui s'estadonne aux pratiques de Tonanisme durant cette periode, trop souvent est perdu, incurable. Mais un fait k remarquer, c'est que, chez plusieurs, les premiers besoins de Tamour qui se font sentir modifient les habitudes vicieuses, et, sans les extirper, les rfeg-lent et les gouvement d'une singnlibre fagon. La fl^trissure de la chair gdLgne alors rintelligence, et Ton voit naitre ces amours monstrueux et cependant sincdres, que Platon et Virgile ont idealises. II y a Ik un sujet d*dtude philosophique extr^mement curieux, et qu'il est Aonnant qu'on n'ait point aborde." ta JPrnnihre jTUtrt^tfure, Paris, 1877, p. 37.

To compress into a foot note the most superficial reference to what has been iirittenon this subject would be impossible. Books about Hermaphro- dites are numerous ^still more numerous the scientific accounts of them in Medical Journals. I beg to offer nevertheless the two following unscientific descriptions. The first, from my own observation, I will term a female hermaphrodite, as she wore female attire, and bore all the external marks of an attractive woman. I visited Madame H. Balzac, for so she called herself, on the 2nd February, 1882. She was travelling to gain money by showing the peculiarity of her conformation, and has, I believe, been des- cribed in 2^ Lancet, She was about 20 years of age, rather pretty, and quite womanly, with beautiful blue eyes, a good complexion, and fair hair ; her nose was rather masculine, and her mouth rough and large, with bad teeth ; her chest was expansive, and her breasts well developed ; the lower part of her legs slightly bowed and masculine. She possessed, in appearance at least, the organs of both sexes, but neither perfect : a small penis, as in a lad of 12 or 14 years, and testicles apparently developed ; the yard was however not perforated. Underneath the testicles was what seemed to be a perfect female vestibule, of which the opening was however only large

XVI.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

Marriage, Impotence, Eunuchs, Seigniorial Rights, (") Rape,

enough to allow her to pass her water, but not to receive a man, or even to admit the insertion of the end of a quill. She told me that she was born in Paris; that she had no monthly flow, but felt nevertheless a periodical indisposition; that she experienced pleasure in the embraces of both sexes, and had even an erection when with a sympathetic female. She could not of course satisfy her desires. The second account of what I will call a male hermaph- rodite I condense from Clje ^oit iErpre£(£(, Rochester, N.Y. March lO, 1883. At a coroner's inquest at Halnieville, Bucks County, the Rev. William Jarrktt, an English subject, and pastor of the Episcopal church was dis- covered to be a " genuine hermaphrodite. The authenticity of this remark- able phenomenon was vouched for by Drs. Wilson, Dingey and Kurtz, who made the post-mortem examination. It was discovered that the unity of both sexes existed in the body, and the unusual and curious physical anomaly was developed in a marked degree. The man was 74 years old, and of large physique. The distinctive physical organs, typical of male and female, were fully developed. Jarrett took charge of the pulpit at Halmeville, an entire stranger, three years ago. He was a brilliant orator, and soon made friends. He occupied the parsonage all alone, did his own cooking, and sought seclusion. Jarrett said he had a wife and children in Australia, but In the light of recent events this is not credited.** ** Peu d'hommes (qui ont les deux sexes, et pourtant sont les plus puissants miles), ont le don d'in- cubation." J. Michelet, E'Smour, Pan's, 1861, p. 184.

11 Doubt, it will be seen, has been expressed as to the existence of a /us prinuB nocits. On the other hand, if we are to believe the lately published National Manuscripts of Ireland, King Conchobar, who reigned at the commencement of our era, enjoyed that right, for we are told that every man of Ulster brought his daughter when she had reached the age of puberty to Conchobar in order that he might enjoy her. Nor has this custom, as it seems, entirely disappeared among barbarous races. The

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XVII.

Prostitution, (*^) &^c. Many of these treatises are in Latin, frequently interspersed with the vernacular, and were written in some instances by students as college essays. (^) It seems

traveller, M. de Braza, affirms that there is a king-dom on the Qon%o of which the sovereign has the rig^ht to consider all his female subjects as his own wives. Consult Sebuc arcl)^ologiq[ue, Decembre, 1881, p. 33^ ; I'lntrr^ meHtatre, xv. 640. Two recent works on the subject, the authors of both of which believe in a Jus primx nociisy may here be noted : Ee Brott iru l^ttgneur &*c.par\AjQii de Labessade, Parisy Rouveyre, 1878; It^ Broit^ Ira detgnetir tfoutf la jT^oHaltt^ 6r»c. Paris, Lambert, 1882, by Ch. Fsllens, 2 vols., illustrated.

^ Those who have not studied the matter have no idea what a vast amount of books have been written on this subject. Clerg-ymen and doctors innumerable in provincial towns have printed their ideas as to how the social evil should be treated. In fact, the Bibliogfraphy of Prostitution would form a volume as bulky as it would be curious.

^ " S'il est dangereux de tout dire aux enfants, il est plus dang-ereux encore de leur laisser tout ignorer." This truism, to the elaboration of which Marmontel has devoted one of his Conies Moraux, is more easily enunciated than defined. It has been, and always will be, one of the chief stumbling blocks in the path of education, and many unprejudiced and liberal minded people may be found who doubt the wisdom or desirability of placing in the hands of our youths, and maidens as well now that our universities have opened their doors to the weaker sex, the writings of the ancients spiced as they are with the turpitudes of civilisations if not baser, at any rate more out spoken, than our own. In this matter, as in so many others, we may lake a lesson from the East from a nation loving learning no less than we do. " The Chinese (remarks S. W. Williams) are not compelled, as we are, upon the authority of great names, and for the sake of the graces of style and language, to place in the hands of their youth

XVIII.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

Strange that such topics should have been chosen for the purpose. They frequently display great research, and may be found useful by those who are investigating such matters.

Very few words are needed as preface to the remarks which occupy pp. 32 to 59. Among the interesting cities of Europe Venice undoubtedly holds a foremost place, whether considered from a historical, political, social, or artistic point of view ; and the volume there analysed, although emanating from a private source, must be recognised as one of the most valuable contri- butions to the study of Venetian domestic life. Around the women of Venice has ever clung a halo of attraction, attributable in great measure to their beauty, and the splendour of their attire, on the rare occasions when they were seen in public, but more than all perhaps to the impenetrable barrier by which they were surrounded in former days through the seclusion in which they were kept, Q^) at a later date by the jealous surveillance

works containing- passages which put modesty to the blush works in which the most admirable maxims of morality are mixed and confounded together in the same page with avowals and descriptions of the most disgusting licentiousness. The writings which the Chinese put into the hands of their youthful students are in this respect wholly unexceptionable." C|)e ifSttltlb Rmjlrom, New Fork, 1879, 1- 439-

To whom I would strongly recommend the remarkable little volume by J.-M. DuFOUR : (Sue^ttonft IHuitftretf, ou Biblioihique des Livres st'nguliers en droit y 6f*c. Paris, 1813,

M. Charles Yriarte depicts the Gentildarmes vhtiiiennes, during the xvnth century as " vivant entre elles dans leur interieur, cachdes k tous les yeux et menant une si particulibre existence, ' qu*elle tient quelque chose de sauvage.* Elles ne se visitent point et ne se parleiit point lorsqu'elles se

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XIX.

of their cavaliere servente rather than of their husbands. (^^) The nuns of Venice, even, differed in a marked degree from those of other Italian cities, enjoying, as they did, a liberty little in accordance with their religious vows. Many of the nunneries, in fact, were little better than boarding houses for the daughters of the wealthy, and their parlours, (^*) especially

rencontrent, elles demeurent dans leurs maisons, en d&habille, except^ les jours de £6te. En ces occasions, quelques-unes se rendent aux 6glises, mais toutes n'y vont point \ cause du grand nombre de chapelles particuliferes proches des palais. Lcs maris sont fort jaloux, et s*ils ont quelque sujet de Tetre, ils tiennent sans scrupule les femmes au logis pendant des annees entibres. La vie des femmes d'alors ^tait, d vrai dire, la vie du harem, ou plutdt celle du gyn^cde, avec la difference des temps, des moeurs, de la religion. D'ailleurs les Venitiens ont, comme on dit, de qui tenir. Ne sont- ce pas des Orientaux, aprcs tout ? " Ea IPie tJ'un Jatrif im Ke T7enidr, pp. 32, 35.

^7 In his charming lcttrti$ dTamtlt^rttf, under date 1739> Charles dx Brosses writes : " Dbs qu'une fille, entre nobles, est promise, elle met un masque, et personne ne la vqit plus que son futur, ou ceux k qui il le permet, ce qui est fort rare. En se mariant, elle devient un meuble de communaut^ pour toute la famille, chose assez bien imagin^e, puisque cela supprime Tembarras de la pr^ution, et que Ton est sCir d*avoir des heritiers du sang. Cest souvent Tapanage du cadet de porter le nom de mari ; mais, outre cela, il est de r^gle qu'il y ait un amant ; ce seroit m€me une esp^ce de d^s- honneur \ une femme, si elle n'avoit pas un homme publiquement sur son compte. VoiUt quel est le train courant de la galanterie, ob les etrangers n'ont pas beau jeu." I. 117, 1 18.

18 " Rien n'est plus frequent6 que les parloirs de religieuses, et quelque rigoureux que puissent 6tre les magistrats sur les monast^i es, les nobles qui y ont des habitudes y rendent de frequentes visites ; et comme il n'y a point

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during the Carnival, were the scenes of riotous merriment and licence. Q^) The cynosure of Venice, however, was un- doubtedly the cortigiana a class of woman as remarkable as, and more influential perhaps than the haeterae of Greece, or than the Parisian courtisane of a later day ; she vied with, and even outshone, her sister of the Imperial City,(^) then, it would

de jeune religieuse bien faite qui ne soit courtisee ])ar plus d'un cavalier, toute la vigilance des superieures ne sert qu'^ faire trouver \ ces filles plus d'expedients pour voir leurs amants. Pendant le carnaval les parloirs sont le rendez-vous des masques ; plus ils sont bouffons et ridicules, mieux ils sont re^'us. Les jeunes gentilshommes font des parties pour se dcguiser le plus extravagamment qu'ils peuvent, et vont de couvents en couvents divertir les religieuses par mille contes plaisants." Saint-Didier, la IJtUe et la 3&^pub[tqne ire Urntiefe.

w " C'ctait k la grille des couvents mondains, qu'aux demiers jours du carnaval, on voyait des nonnes ddguisdes en femmes du monde, m^me en hommes, avec bouquet de plumes au chapeau, et, ainsi atournees, faire la reverence et le salut galant de la main, de la Ibvre et de Tceil, avec toutes les graces du bel air, aux allants et venants au parloir." Irief dTemmc^ Slontretf, p. 198.

^ In II Zopptno piacevol ragionammto nel quale il Zoppino^fatto Frate, e Lodovico, putianiertf trattano de la vita e de la genealogia di tuite le Coriigiane di Roma, which first appeared at Venice, in 1539, will be found a most curious, albeit coarse and even disgusting, picture of the Roman prostitutes, which contrasts strikingly with the many pleasant descriptions we have of the courtesans of Venice, some of which 1 shall presently cite. After describing to his companion the filthy condition of their persons, how offensively they smelt, 6-r., Zoppino adds: "Falle un poco caminar per camera ignude, vedrai mille cose che ti offenderanno. A chi pende de la natura la strenga

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seem, her only rival. (^) Of the great number (*^) of courtezans in Venice ; of their manner of living, and surroundings ; of

o rembrencioli. Chi ha intomo al culo una merciaria di creste. A chi pendono le zinne infino al bellico, che paiano fiaschi piene di venacce, che fanno piii rami che non fa il Po in Lombardia. Chi ha a la pancia quattro o sei faldoni Tun sopra Taltro, che gli cuoprono la por pottaccia. Chi ha le co5cie rugate. Chi su le ginocchia il fango, che vi si potria piantar le lattughe. Chi ha le chiappe ruvide come la pelle d'un'occa. A chi gli cascano su le coscie di dietro. E chi ha le croste ne le ligature de le calze per far bella gambetta. Si che se tu vedessi queste cose, come le ho viste io, elle ti uscirebbono di mente. Dunque ti prego te ne vogli chiarire, perche questo h il rimedio d'amore." (p. 46). I have used the edition of Pan's, Isidore Liskux, 1883, in which a literal French translation is given en regard, 77 Zoppinoy which appeared anonymously, has been attributed to Pietro Aretino. That it wets not written by him may, I think, be affirmed with certainty. I am inclined, on the other hand, to ascribe it to Francisco Delicado, than whom no one had a better knowledge of the subject in hand. His long sojourn in Italy, of which four years were passed at Rome, must have afforded him occasion to acquire Italian with sufficient thoroughness to enable him to write a book in that language. See p. 384 post,

" Au xvie sifecle, il serait inutile de chercher ailleurs qu*^ Rome et \ Venise des courtisanes cdfebres. C'etait seulement dans ces deux capitales que la voie leur 6tait ouverte au renom et k la fortune. En un mot, Venise et Rome etaient leurs deux centres d 'action, leurs cours, leurs trones, comme aujourd'hui Paris et Londres. Et les Courtisanes done, qui tenaient le sceptre, c'etait une renovation de Tantiquite greque et romaine, c'etait une caste, un ordre dans TEtat." dTemmeii Sloniretf, pp. 131, 202.

21 In la Cariffa trelle J^uttane tJi TJenegi'a a remarkable poem, in form of dialogue between a "forestiere" and a " gentilhuomo," we read :

" Tcmte sono puttane in tutti i lati, " De quai veggiam talhor piu folta schiera, " Che di vacche e di buoi per li mercati.

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their prominence, in marked contrast to the retired mode of life of the Venetian ladies ; (*^) of their influence, at times no doubt pernicious, (^) which, if never permitted in affairs of

" Ma s'io vi voglio far parlando note " Le Cortigiane tutte ad una ad una, " E lor costumi e qualitk vi note,

"Prima averrk che Taria oscura e bruna " Scacci il giomo al Maroco."

The edition which I have used is that of Paris^ Isidore Liseux, 1883, with a French translation en regard, reprinted from a MS. copy made by the late M. ]£douard Tricotel from the orig-inal, printed at Venice in 1535. M. Liseux attributes the poem " sans h&itation k Lorenzo Veniero."

>2 " A peine voit-on paraftre la femme dans la vie sociale des demiers temps. De la gondole ou sur les lutoni (all^s) elle echange un sourire d 'intelligence avec les elegants cavaliers, et, assise sur son balcon, elle pr6te Toreille aux chants petillants de po^sie et d'esprit, qui dans les soirees sereines se rdpandent sur les lagunes. * * Vis-^-vis cependant de la dame, on voit s'elever et regner la courtisane. Celle-ci, k la verity n'exerce aucune influence sur les affaires publiques, mais on lui deceme des honneurs extraordinaires ; elle inspire Tart, elle en est la Muse. La courtisane ne le c^de en rien k la dame noble : ses ajustements sont aussi riches, ses coiffures aussi bizarres, ses maniferes aussi avenantes." P. G. Molmenti, la T7if SPdb^e A TJem^r, p. 337-

23 Consult R jriagello trelle ^Btretricf, et la Nobility donnesca ne* figlivoli del Signor Gio. Antonio Massinoni Dottor di Leggi. Nuouanienie post a in luce da GiACOMO Massinoni. Con Licentia, de* Superiori, & Priuilegio. In Venetia, M.D.XCIX. Appresso Giacomo Antonio Somascho. Size of letter-press 6| by 3i inches ; pp. 16 numbered on redo only; vignette on title-page of a centaur bearing a motto.

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State, was employed by the police of the city ; of their beauty, and superior education, or I should rather say accomplishments ; of their amiability, and winning ways ; (^) of the richness of

At p. lOO of his work Se la iJro^trtutwn en Surope, M. Rabutaux writes : " Quant h Venise, c'etait peut-etre dans le monde le foyer le plus actif de la debauche et de la Prostitution : en aucun lieu on ne trouvait autant de femmes communes ; elles etaient, en quelque fa9on, une partie du gouveme- ment dans cette r^publique ombrageuse ; soit que les magistrats voulussent amollir dans les plaisirs et dans le desordre la jeunesse venitienne et la dAoumer de Tetude des affaires, soit m^me que ces innombrables courtisanes devinssent les auxiliaries de leur police infatigable. La grande affluence des etrangers Aait aussi une cause naturelle de ce relichement. En 1421, la Republique appela des femmes dtrangferes pour les livrer k Tincontinence publique, per conservar la honesia della terra; on les pla^a dans un lieu nomm6 Carampana ; une matrone placfe ^ leur t^te administrait la com- munaute, tenait la caisse, recevait Tor lustral (aurum lus/rale), et, une fois chaque mois, partageait les b^n6fices entre les associees. Il parait que, dans cet atelier national, on avait adopts Tegalite des salaires. (Nicolo Doglioni, Delle cose notabtli della citta di Venetia, Venet., 1587, in-l2, p. 23.)" In the volume of M. Rabutaux will be found a wood-cut from an original painting representing a night at the house of Laura Pesciotta, at Venice.

* " Pour dpuiser Tarticle du sexe feminin, il convient ici plus qu'ailleurs de vous dire un mot des courtisanes. Elles composent un corps vraiment respectable, par les bons precedes. II ne faut pas croire encore, comme on le dit, que le nombre en soit si grand que Ton marche dessus ; cela n'a lieu que dans le temps de carnaval, oli Ton trouve sous les arcades des Procuraties, autant de femmes couch^es que debout ; hors de 1^ leur nombre ne sMtend pas ^ plus du double de ce quMl y en a ^ Paris ; mais aussi elles sont fort employees. Tous les jours reguli^rement k Vingt-quatre ou vingt-quatre heures et demie au plus tard, toutes sont occupees. Tant pis pour ceux qui viennent trop tard. A la difference de celles de Paris, toutes sont d une douceur d'esprit et d*une politesse charmante. Quoique vous leur demandiez,

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their attire, and of the luxury of their dwellings ; (") we have

leur reponse est toujours : Serd serviio, sono a suoi commandi (car il est de la civilitc de ne parler jamais aux gens qu'k la troisi^me personne.) A la verite, vu la reputation dont elles jouissent, les demandes qu'on leur fait ordinairement sont fort bom^s ; cependant j'en trouvai Tautre jour une si jolie que . . . . le moyen de ne s'y pas fier, ( sic) elle me repondoit des consequences per la beatissima madonna di LoretoT De Brosses, Settre^ dTamtlt^retf, I. 1 1 8.

26 Writing in 1611, Thomas Cory/it says: "As for the number of these Venetian G>rtezans it is very great. For it is thought there are of them in the whole City and other adiacent places, as Murano, Malomocco, &c. at the least twenty thousand, whereof many are esteemed so loose, that they are said to open their quiuers to every arrow. For so infinite are the allurements of these amorous Calypsoes, that the fame of them hath drawen many to Venice from some of the remotest parts of Christendome, to con- template their beauties, and enioy their pleasing dalliances. And indeede such is the variety of the delicious obiects they minister to their louers, that they want nothing tending to delight. For when you come into one of their Palaces (as indeed some few of the principallest of them Hue in very magnifi- cent and portly buildings fit for the entertainement of a great PrinceJ you seeme to enter into the Paradise of Venus, For their fairest roomes are most glorious and glittering to behold. The walles round about being adorned with most sumptuous tapistry and g^lt leather, ♦. Besides you may see the picture of the noble Cortezan most exquisitely drawen. As for her selfe shee comes to thee decked like the Queene and Goddesse of loue, in so much that thou wilt thinke she made a late transmigration from Paphos, Cindos, or Cythera, the auncient habitations of Dame Venus. For her face is adorned with the quintessence of beauty. In her cheekes thou shalt see the Lilly and the Rose striue for the supremacy, and the siluer tramels of her haire displayed in that curious manner besides her two frisled peakes standing vp like prety Pyramides, that they giue thee the true Cos amoris, « « * For few of the Cortezans are so much beholding to nature, but that they adulterate their faces, A thing so common amongst them, that many of them which

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ample record. Italian writers have portrayed them, have re-

haue an elegant naturall beauty, doe varnish their faces (the obseruation whereof made me not a little pitty their vanities) with these kinde of sordid trumperies. Also the ornaments of her body are so rich, that except thou dost euen geld thy affections, shee wil very neare benumme and captiuate thy senses, and make reason vale bonnet to affection. For thou shalt see her decked with many chaines of gold and orient pearle like a second Cleopatra^ (but they are very litle) diuers gold rings beautified with diamonds and other costly stones, iewels in both her eares of great worth. A gowne of damaske (I speake this of the nobler Cortizans) either decked with a deep gold fringe or laced with fiue or